Test 1 -
History/Herstory - the history of all people, men and women
Power and Authority - Power can be taken, authority is given
Primary / Secondary Sources - closer in time and distance, most likely to be a primary source
Religion / Ethical Systems - different religions (Buddhism, Christian, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism) - normally have rules, ethical systems is individual choices and/or decisions
Interaction with environment - done by tech, everything's the environment
Revolution - when rules are broken and you create change
Economics - trade, can change (circumstantial)
Cultural Interaction - music, food, language, can be shared and is being shared via globalization
Empire Building - empires are made by people, leave an influence
Science And Technology - Understand environment/Manipulate environment
Globalization - a process , which is involving the whole globe
Fire- First technology. Examples of its importance - can be used for communication, can help you stay warm, can help cook food, can give power and authority (can create weapons be used as a weapon), can serve as a light source.
History - is written
Pre-history - history before writing
Ancient man / Woman - focused on needs and not wants. Used Fire, needed to communicate (thus paintings- cave paintings assignment).
Archaeology - the study of ARTIFACTS + FOSSILS to determine Prehistory AND History
Fossils - made by living things
Artifacts - made by humans
Carbon/dna/soil levels - Fossil dating methods
Geologists - scientist who study the earth. work closely with archeologists to give us pre-history and history
Hunter-Gatherer - earliest humans were hunter gatherers, lived by hunting small animals and gathering plants. Remember your caveman and woman activities.
FIRE - first tech that helped humans pass the point of hunter-gatherer
STONE AGE - because of what we are talking about, this ancient age is known as the STONE AGE. This was the age of hunter gatherer, stone tools, large families, homo-sapiens surviving, etc.
Out of Africa Theory - thanks to discovery of fossils such as LUCY, we believe all early humans originated from Africa. This is a THEORY.
Neanderthals - early hominids who were bigger and stronger than us (homo-sapiens) but lost the evolutionary battle of survival due to their perceived lack of language.
Homo Sapiens - us, human beings. We had language which allowed us to survive not only animal hunts but also battles with Neanderthals.
Families - ancient men and women had LARGE families
Domesticate - involves using BOTH plants AND animals, changing their behavior to improve the lives of humans
BC- Before Christ
BCE - Before Common Era
AD- After Death
CE- Common Era
Agriculture - the use of plants and animals effectively giving us SURPLUS (extra) which allows us to later specialize
Specialization - once we get agriculture and no longer need to concentrate on only hunting and gathering , now we can do other things, which leads to roles such as artists and traders, or even priests. People having different roles is specialization.
Civilization - a complex society due to to specialization of people and village growth
Rivers - all civilizations started near rivers
Mesopotamia - the original name for the location of the area where Sumer is
Ziggurat - the most important building in Sumer, was important for religious reasons (sacrifices, religious festivals, etc) and administrative reasons (city cleaning, city planning, city governing etc)
Priests...THEN Kings - Sumer had priests as the most important rulers first since the Ziggurat, which served religious functions, was the most important location. Later as invasions occurred, kings became more important.
Sumer - first civilization
Barter- trading without money
Cuneiform - Sumerian invention of writing
Modern concept of time - Sumerian invention of days, minutes, hours
Akkadian Empire - FIRST empire ever, took over Sumer, which by definition of an empire (one civilization which takes over another) made them the first empire . Their ruler (king) was known as Sargon.
Babylonian Empire - The second empire ever. Their King was Hammurabi, and his code, was important because it was the first PUBLICLY VISIBLE set of laws.
Week 1 -
Power and authority -